It may be the dead of winter now, but spring migration will be here before you know it. Get ready by learning your Empidonax flycatchers. You'll have to put time into learning their calls, because learning their field marks may prove useless in a lot of cases. And during the spring, you can bet they'll be singing!
This handy mnemonic design lists the most pesky Empids: Alder Flycatcher, Least Flycatcher, Willow Flycatcher, Acadian Flycatcher, and Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Get these down in time and you won't have to list any Empidonax sp. the entire year!